SÈVRES (August 10, 1920)


SÈVRES, signed August 10 1920 in Sèvres (near Paris) between the Government of Turkey and the Sultani victorious in the first World War 1914-18 the allied States (United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Armenia, Czech Republic, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Kingdom of Hejaz). On behalf of the Republic of Armenia signed a treaty as well. Aharonyan. From the point of view of international law, the Republic of Armenia, as an accomplice in the Treaty de jure recognized by all other signatory States. In the framework of the peace treaty of Sevres was based on terms of Sykes-Picot agreement, 1916 and the decisions of the Conference powers in San Remo in April 1920 (see. San Remo Conference of 1920). The Treaty consisted of 13 parts and 433 articles.

Under the terms of the peace treaty of Sevres, Turkey refused the Supreme authority over Thrace, from the Aegean Islands, Cyprus, Egypt and the Arab provinces. Greece was to manage benign in perpetuity and its surroundings and to annex the area, if a majority of the population. Asian Turkey urezyvalas′ to the limits of Western Anatolia, Hijazi received independence, and Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia (Iraq) under League of Nations mandates were transferred to Britain and France. In many respects, Sèvres facilitate lasting exploitation of the Middle East by European powers and leave open the way for additional administrative, legal, military and economic control. The peace treaty of Sevres section entitled "Armenia", included articles from 88 to 93. Turkey recognized Armenia as a free and independent State ". Turkey and Armenia agree to submit to the President of the United States arbitration borders within areas of Trebizond, Erzerum, Bitlis and van and accept his conditions for access to the Sea (see. Wilson's arbitration mode). Mutual borders Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan were to be determined by direct negotiations between the States; If those countries fail to reach agreement, the allied powers were supposed to solve the problem with the help of a Special Commission to determine the boundaries on the ground. The relevant articles of the peace treaty of Sevres allowed voluntary exchange of population (adults have the right to choose their nationality in another State in the region — according to their nationality or religious affiliation); included measures for the protection of minorities; recognized the illegality of the decision taken in 1915 the Ottoman government law on abandoned property.

Many other conditions of the peace treaty of Sevres influenced the future. It was agreed that Armenia will have free access to the Black Sea via the port of Batum. Allies favored "Armenian corridor from Kars through the Valley of the Čoroha to the Batumu, but at the time of signature of the Treaty of Georgia offered instead to build the Armenians railroad through Georgia. Since it was not known whether the port of Trebizond is included in Armenia, Armenia provided a special article guarantees transit privileges and a lifetime lease of part of the port. By the time of the signing of the peace treaty of Sevres Commission, appointed by the President. Wilson, studied topography, economy, transport, water resources, trade routes, demography, etc. d., that should have been taken into account when drawing up recommendations on borders. The Commission presented these recommendations for consideration in September, and the President conveyed its decision to the European powers in November 1920.

In his decision of Armenia was to receive two thirds of the vilayets of Bitlis, van and almost the entire vilayet of Èozrum, a large part of the vilayet of Trabzon, including port. Collectively, these territories were approximately in 100 thousand. kV. km. Uniting with the Republic of Armenia in the Caucasus, independent Armenian State combined territory would have over 150 thousand. kV. km with outputs to the Black Sea. Sèvres could contribute to solving the Armenian question and the Armenian people provide enough territory for its national consolidation. Sèvres, however, remained on paper. It has not ratified even ' Government. Have made all forces in order to prevent its approval. As a first step in the breakdown of the peace treaty of Sevres have launched a new invasion of the Republic of Armenia, in an effort to destroy it. During the next two years have, taking advantage of the new international environment created as a result of convergence of Soviet Russia and Kemalist Turkey, have made a revision of the terms of the peace treaty of Sevres, essentially — its abolition. This is reflected in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. The allies recognized the Government of Ankarekoe m. Kemal and his ownership of Eastern Thrace, benign in perpetuity, Couch, all territories that were awarded to Armenia by the Treaty of Sevres. Moreover, they recognized the new boundaries of Turkey, which included the former districts of Eastern Armenia-Kars, Ardahan, Surmalu. It was a complete victory for Turkey. A small portion of historic Armenia continued to exist as Soviet Armenia, but most Armenians were left scattered around the world. Sèvres remains a reminder of the Armenian people's right to seek an equitable solution of the Armenian question.

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