Turkey can close the Straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles

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The degraded due to downed Su-24 relations between Russia and Turkey may lead not only to a crisis in the energy and tourism cooperation between the two countries, but also in the military sphere. According to international agreements, the Turkish authorities have the right to close the Straits of Bosporus and the Dardanelles, which connect the black and the Mediterranean Seas, the military courts if they feel themselves under the "military threat". And in the case of a direct war it happens automatically.

However, at the moment a unilateral shadowing Straits unlikely because violates international agreements, in particular the 1936 Montreux Convention year, noted RBC.

According to the document, in peacetime, Turkey is obliged to ignore small warships and middle class of all countries. Powers of the Black Sea through the Straits can conduct any class warships. The only caveat: they must follow alone or with minimal escort (up to two destroyers).

If Turkey is in a State of war or "under the threat of military danger," the question of approval of warships in the Straits remains at the discretion of Ankara. Under the terms of the Treaty, in this case war should be declared officially, but if this does not happen, then Turkey is obliged to ignore foreign ships with the condition that they were cut off from its NAVY base. In addition, the country must obtain the consent of the UN of the closure of the Straits.

Note that in peacetime merchant ships can pass through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles "night and day, regardless of the flag and of the goods", and even if Turkey is in a State of war, it must ignore the civil court friendly and neutral countries (night and according to Ankara fairway). If the country "considers itself under threat of military danger", it is still obliged to ignore all merchant ships, regardless of flag, at any time, but it also must be specified.

Managing partner of law firm "Ûrinflot-Spb" Vladimir Morkovkin believes that from a legal point of view, Turkey does not have legal grounds to close the Straits in the current situation. Impede passage of unfriendly vessels Turkey can only in a State of war, I am sure the expert.

The possible prohibition of passage through straits for Russian warships threatens the supply of the RUSSIAN contingent in Syria, political analyst Stanislav Belkovsky said the channel "rain". "Military ships will not be able to go out into the Mediterranean Sea. Mean supply of Syrian factions will be completely paralyzed. Russia will not be able to increase the number to 25-30 thousand people, as stated. This will eliminate a land operation of the RF in Syria, "said the expert.

It is worth noting that Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Russia's unwillingness to fight with Turkey, despite the fact that Ankara, in his opinion, went on a "deliberate provocation" by staging the "ambush" and shooting down Russian aircraft. "Fight with Turkey, we are not going to the Turkish people's attitude has not changed, we have raised questions to the actions of the current Turkish leadership," the diplomat said.

Nevertheless, a day after the death of a Russian Su-24 bombers, Russian President Vladimir Putin, called Turkey's actions "strike back", announces airlift at Hmejmim airbase in Syria anti-aircraft missile systems s-400. Note that the shortest path for the delivery of weapons and military passes through the Black Sea and the Straits of Bosporus and the Dardanelles. In late September, the media reported on the well-established system of cargo between Novorossiysk and Syria through the Straits.

Thus, downed Turkish fighter Su-24 bomber can affect the balance of power in Syria. In the event of the closure of the Straits Bosporus and Dardanelles path for supply ships seriously increase-would have to tap into Gibraltar. This journey takes 13 days in the event of departure from St.Petersburg or 14-and-a-half days in the administration of Murmansk instead of four days, using the Turkish Straits.

The Montreux Convention

Conference on the regime of straits in Swiss Montreux was held from 22 June to July 21, 1936 Goda. It was attended by the USSR, Turkey, United Kingdom, France, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Yugoslavia, Australia and Japan. It was convened upon the proposal of Turkey to revise the Convention on the regime of the Straits, adopted at the Lausanne Conference of 1922-1923.

According to the great Soviet encyclopedia, in Montreux launched sharp debate caused by trying to restrict the Uk under the pretext of "equality" of the Black Sea and nečernomorskih powers the right of passage through the Straits of Soviet warships. As a result, a new Convention was signed, according to which Turkey got the right remilitarizirovat′ zone of the Straits.

It is worth mentioning that before the revolution, in the year 1915, signed a secret agreement between the countries of the entente, on which the United Kingdom and France agree to resolve age-old Eastern question by passing the Straits of Constantinople, taken from the Russian Empire in Exchange for lands in the Asian part of the Ottoman Empire.

However, the Bosphorus operation did not take place-after the October revolution, Vladimir Lenin signed in December 1917 year appeal to workers in the East where the Muslims revealed the existence of a secret agreement, saying that "secret treaties of the deposed Tsar of Constantinople, confirmed by deposed Kerensky, now torn and destroyed."

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